Even oven-dried wood retains a small percentage of moisture, but for all except chemical purposes, may be considered absolutely dry. The general effect of the water content upon the wood substance is to render it softer and more pliable. A similar effect occurs in the softening action of water on rawhide, paper, or cloth. Within certain limits, the greater the water content, the greater its softening effect. Drying produces a decided increase in the strength of wood, particularly in small specimens. The greatest strength increase due to drying is in the ultimate crushing strength, and strength at elastic limit in endwise compression; these are followed by the modulus of rupture, and stress at elastic limit in cross-bending, while the modulus of elasticity is least affected. There are no vessels “pores” in coniferous wood such as one sees so prominently in oak and ash, for example. The structure of hardwoods is more complex. In discussing such woods it is customary to divide them into two large classes, ring-porous and diffuse-porous.
How to store & protect wooden garden furniture for winter
Even oven-dried wood retains a small percentage of moisture, but for all except chemical purposes, may be considered absolutely dry. The general effect of the water content upon the wood substance is to render it softer and more pliable. A similar effect occurs in the softening action of water on rawhide, paper, or cloth. Within certain limits, the greater the water content, the greater its softening effect.
Frenchfinds is a family business selling quality antique and vintage French furniture sourced mainly in the Loire Valley region of France, the majority is antique dating from around years old, vintage, authentic used furniture.
More Furniture Styles Buying period antique furniture takes detective work The original finish on an antique is part of it’s valued charm When shopping for antique furniture be sure and take the following “tools” with you: To determine if a wood worm hole in antique furniture is genuine, insert a sewing needle into the hole, if it goes in straight it is a “fake hole” made by a drill. Worms never eat in a straight line! Always be on the look out for repairs well made ones are fine Fakers are clever so be watchful for “new” furniture made from “old” parts i.
Also be watchful for the “honest reproduction” Look for the signs of early workmanship in the proportions, finish, materials both wood and hardware and in the design details. Never rely too heavily on old lables Learn to recognize period detail; read books and visit museums to help train your eye as to what details belong to which periods, this can help you spot a fake easily. Always be careful of style characteristics that should not occur together, such as cabriole legs in oak.
If you find old wrought iron nails in a piece of furniture look for a blackened area in the wood around the nail as iron corrodes over time. Therefore, do not rely on the presence of old nails to authenticate a piece as “new” old cut nails can be purchased from any restoration catalog by the box full!
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Get adequately obsessive about wood maintenance and it might even outlast you. You might not last another hundred years. But your garden table might if you treat it right. To mark their th anniversary they decided to find the oldest Passmore shed still in use. They found it in Chatham, where it had provided gardening pleasure since and was still going strong. How to keep your wood garden furniture in tip top condition Now for the sensible bit.
Wetherlys is a brand furniture store owned by the Ellerines group of companies. The Ellerines group of companies comprises at least six brands which include Beares, Ellerines, Wetherleys, Geen & Richards, Furniture City and Dial-a-Bed.. Ellerines Holdings Limited (EHL) owns more than furniture shops in South Africa and over 80 shops in foreign countries.
Review supplier performance against contract Identify and resolve supplier performance issues Communicate the status to management Review and accept the items procured Procuring goods and services from external suppliers can be a critical path for many projects. Often, the performance of the supplier will reflect on the performance of the overall project team. The procurement process involves managing the order, receipt, review and approval of items from suppliers.
A procurement process also specifies how the supplier relationships will be managed, to ensure a high level of service is received. This is a critical task helps us “get what client have paid for”. We can ensure that the items provided meet the project need. No matter the size or budget, estimating a project can be a daunting task. Every project request comes with a mystical, gray area that makes everyone nervous about expectations concerning cost, timelines, and level of effort.
Because the grey area changes from project to project, there is no magical portion for creating a solid estimate. In order to create a workable estimate, you need to know your team, deliverables, tasks, and process like the back of your hand. You also have to be comfortable asking questions to figure out the things that you and maybe even your potential client or customer do not know. This chapter touches on best practices for creating project estimates grounded in your understanding of a project reality and being prepared for that alternate universe that eventually ends up in a change request.
Sales Department Our Sales Team members are all industry professionals with many years of business management experience across various disciplines from the interiors and construction sector. We at Hyssna believe that we will do better as an organization through a strong and sustainable partnership with our employees.
Search new window Printout For best results save the whole page pictures included onto your hard disk, open the page with Word 97 or higher, edit if necessary and print. The majority of Egyptians did not have many belongings that had to be hidden away , so a chest or two or a few baskets would furnish plenty of storing space. Tables were rarely used. Even scribes, more affluent than the average Egyptian, did not write their scrolls sitting at a table, but generally squatted on the floor, holding a wooden board, on which the papyrus was spread, with one hand and writing with the other.
Kitchen work was done crouching with the cooking utensils laid out on the floor. In many houses there would be a few low stools, but people often sat simply on the ground.
Versatile Office Solutions The Bush Business Furniture Series A Desk fits in tight spaces and endures years of everyday use. Thick end panels and a durable thermally fused laminate surface fend off scratches, stains and dents for long-lasting professional quality.
Wood Wood is the material most often used for making furniture. Although there are over a hundred different kinds that can be used for furniture, some woods have natural properties that make them superior to the others. A relatively cheap material, wood lends itself to various kinds of treatment; for example, it can be stained, painted, gilded, and glued. It can be shaped by means of hand- or power-operated cutting and drilling tools.
Heated, it can be bent to a certain extent into a predetermined shape and thereafter will retain the shape. The grain in wood creates a structure with varying character, which in itself provides a natural ornamental surface, in which patterns can be formed by means of precalculated juxtapositions. Colours range from white, yellow, green, red, brown, gray to black through countless intermediary tones.
By juxtaposing wood of different colours, extremely rich effects have been achieved, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries. Wood, if stored under favourable conditions, is durable, and pieces of furniture from the oldest civilizations—Egypt, for example—are still extant.
How to restore wooden garden furniture
How to tell the age of antique furniture Shelly McRae Updated February 21, Determining the age of antique furniture is not an exact science, but there are certain indicators of age evident in furniture. How a piece is constructed is a common measure of age. You should look at the screws, nails, wood, joining and hardware. The condition and quality of materials are used to gauge the age of a piece. The wear and tear of a piece of furniture also helps to tell its age.
A legitimate antique is one hundred years old or older.
Egypt Beds, stools, throne chairs, and boxes were the chief forms of furniture in ancient Egypt. Although only a few important examples of actual furniture survive, stone carvings, fresco paintings, and models made as funerary offerings present rich documentary evidence. The bed may have been the earliest form; it was constructed of wood and consisted of a simple framework supported on four legs.
A flax cord, plaited, was lashed to the sides of the framework. The cords were woven together from opposite sides of the framework to form a springy surface for the sleeper. In the 18th dynasty c. The great beds found in the tomb of Tutankhamen were put together with bronze hooks and staples so that they could be dismantled or folded to facilitate storage and transportation; furniture existed in small quantities and when the pharaohs toured their lands, they took their beds with them.
In the same tomb was a folding wooden bed with bronze hinges. Instead of pillows, wooden or ivory headrests were used. These were so essentially individual, being made to the measure of the owner, that they were often placed in tombs to be used by the dead man on his arrival in the land of eternity. Folding headrests were probably for the use of travellers.
Early stools for ceremonial purposes were merely squared blocks of stone. When made of wood, the stool had a flint seat later shaped concavely covered with a soft cushion.
Going Rustic: A Guide to Painting Old Wooden Furniture
Preserving and Restoring Furniture Coatings Introduction Coatings accomplish several functions when used in conjunction with wooden objects. First, and probably foremost in terms of the fabricator’s intent, is that coatings alter the appearance of the surface. That is, coatings serve some aesthetic purpose.
By Rain Noe – Nov 06 Unusual Vintage Furniture Designs: What was This Funky Bi-Level Desk Used For? End users of a certain type. Currently for sale at antiques dealer 1st Dibs is this funky, bi-level desktop, built circa by the Hamilton Manufacturing Company.
The practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture likely dates to the beginning of human civilisation. The site dates from — BC and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a readily available material that could be worked easily and turned into items for use within the household.
Each house shows a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards, dressers and beds to shelves, stone seats, and limpet tanks. The stone dresser was regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering, perhaps displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls also found at the site.
Pieces found here include tables and inlaid serving stands. There are also surviving works from the 9th-8th-century BC Assyrian palace of Nimrud. The earliest surviving carpet, the Pazyryk Carpet was discovered in a frozen tomb in Siberia and has been dated between the 6th and 3rd century BC. Ancient Egypt[ edit ] Civilisation in ancient Egypt began with the clearance and irrigation of land along the banks of the River Nile ,  which began in about BC. By that time, society in the Nile Valley was already engaged in organized agriculture and the construction of large buildings.
Mortar was in use by around BC. The inhabitants of the Nile Valley and delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer an early variety of wheat and stored it in pits lined with reed mats. The use of scarf joints to join two shorter pieces together and form a longer beam was one example of this,  as well as construction of veneers in which low quality cheap wood was used as the main building material, with a thin layer of expensive wood on the surface.
Typically, the insurance value of an antique item is the highest retail value for that item. In other words, it’s best to insure your antique furniture for the maximum amount of money it would cost to replace that item if it were lost or damaged. Typically, insurance companies an item will require you to get a formal written appraisal from a professional appraiser.
Furniture: Furniture, household equipment, usually made of wood, metal, plastics, marble, glass, fabrics, or related materials and having a variety of different purposes. Furniture ranges widely from the simple pine chest or stick-back country chair to the most elaborate marquetry work cabinet or gilded.
Defining and Identifying Old Hickory vs. In the world of rustic furniture, hickory refers to bark-on hickory poles i. This can sometimes create confusion, for instance in the case of a woman who hoped to sell us a pair of country ladder-back chairs that she assumed were something that rustic furniture collectors would want because they were made out of hickory wood. Another thing that can be confusing is that several of the rustic hickory furniture manufacturers made a few lines of furniture for a limited number of years that had no hickory parts.
These were constructed of willow, pine, oak or chestnut, but sometimes were of the same designs as the rustic furniture that those manufacturers made from hickory poles. Finally, we have occasionally encountered confusion caused by the names of two makers of non-rustic contemporary and reproduction furniture Hickory Chair Company and Old Hickory Tannery which are very similar to the names of the traditional rustic hickory furniture companies. The Indiana Hickory Furniture Manufacturers There were six major companies and several minor companies producing rustic furniture made with hickory poles in Indiana during the first half of the 20th century.
Old Hickory Furniture Company, Martinsville, Indiana Old Hickory was the most prolific and longest lasting rustic hickory furniture manufacturer, so more of their products turn up on the market than do the products of all the other Indiana hickory manufacturers combined.