History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved. You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind. Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications. The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery. Pioneers It is often overlooked that throughout the nineteenth century, most of the electrical experimenters, inventors and engineers who made these advances possible had to make their own batteries before they could start their investigations. They did not have the benefit of cheap, off the shelf, mass produced batteries. For many years the telegraph, and later the telephone, industries were the only consumers of batteries in modest volumes and it wasn’t until the twentieth century that new applications created the demand that made the battery a commodity item.
Historical 7 Photos Located on the hill just a few miles outside of Booneville Arkansas stands the imposing campus that was once known as the Arkansas Tuberculosis Sanatorium. The main hospital building was named after Senator Leo Nyberg who was a tuberculosis patient himself. It has been discovered that Tuberculosis has been around for thousands of years from evidence of a mummified corpse dating back to approximately B.
What is Tuberculosis (TB)? Signs of tubercular damage have been found in Egyptian mummies and in bones dating back at least 5, years. Today, despite advances in treatment, TB is a global pandemic, fueled by the spread of HIV/AIDS, poverty, a lack of health services and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of the bacterium that causes.
Singing Sneezing TB germs must be forced into the air, and to get a tuberculosis infection you must breathe in those germs. But even if you’ve been around an infected person, or breathed in the bacteria they expelled into the air, you still have a chance at escaping TB — not everyone who breathes in the bacteria will develop tuberculosis. You can’t get TB by touching an infected person. Tuberculosis germs don’t stick to clothing or skin; they hang out in the air.
You also can’t get TB by: Giving an infected person a hug or a kiss Using the same toothbrush Eating or drinking after an infected person Shaking hands Sharing clothing, a bed, or towels Using the same toilet as an infected person Who’s Most Contagious? If active tuberculosis disease does develop, and symptoms appear — such as persistent coughing, coughing up blood, breathing problems, or flu-like symptoms — the disease is contagious.
Even before a TB diagnosis , people can unwittingly transmit tuberculosis to others. People with symptomatic TB are contagious until they have taken their TB medications for at least two weeks. After that point, treatment must continue for months, but the infection is no longer contagious. Anyone who has been in contact with someone with TB should have a tuberculosis test also called a PPD test immediately to find out whether they have the illness, and if they are capable of spreading it to other people.
Who Is Most Susceptible to Tuberculosis? Being around a person infected with TB, or even breathing in the air contaminated with tuberculosis germs, doesn’t mean that you’ll definitely get TB.
Why a Doctor Wants You to Know These 9 Crucial Facts About Tuberculosis
Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite that is passed from one person to another during sexual intercourse. Only around 30 percent of people with trich show any symptoms. As well as a burning sensation in the vagina, these symptoms may include:
Signs of TB have been found in human skeletal remains dating back millennia, even into prehistory. Before the Industrial Revolution and the beginnings of modern medicine, folklore had it that tuberculosis was caused by vampires.
Many of the places are patrolled by the authorities, trespassers will be prosecuted. Magalia – Magalia Depot – This location used to be a train depot, but has been a restaurant since In the past owners have seen apparitions and heard voices through vents and banging on the walls. According to past stories from previous owners there are three ghosts. A small child, a woman in a housecoat a conductor.
Malibu – Moonshadows Restaurant – In the women’s restroom, the water faucets have been known to turn on by themselves. Every morning, as was known by many lake residents, Margaret would swim out to the island.
Im dating someone and my bestfriend kissed me?
I was talking some time ago with a young, but not very young, friend of the family about why she had not married. Last time I counted, there were eight million people in New York. Still, this attractive and talented person—who said she wanted to get married—was not dating anyone.
tuberculosis (TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and nervous systems may also be .
Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant MDR and extensively drug-resistant XDR tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis totally drug-resistant tuberculosis.
This poses several challenges similar to those encountered in the pre-chemotherapy era, including the inability to cure tuberculosis, high mortality, and the need for alternative methods to prevent disease transmission. This phenomenon mirrors the worldwide increase in antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of other MDR pathogens, such as malaria, HIV, and Gram-negative bacteria. MDR and XDR tuberculosis are associated with high morbidity and substantial mortality, are a threat to health-care workers, prohibitively expensive to treat, and are therefore a serious public health problem.
In this Commission, we examine several aspects of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The traditional view that acquired resistance to antituberculous drugs is driven by poor compliance and programmatic failure is now being questioned, and several lines of evidence suggest that alternative mechanisms—including pharmacokinetic variability, induction of efflux pumps that transport the drug out of cells, and suboptimal drug penetration into tuberculosis lesions—are likely crucial to the pathogenesis of drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis, also known as TB, or M. However, it can be found in other parts of the body. Acording to the Mayo Clinic, approximately two million people die each year from this disease. TB is a bacteria that is caused by an organism called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Jan 12, · Disease in the News – Tuberculosis HCS/ June 25, Tynan Weed Tuberculosis Tuberculosis, TB (tubercle bacillus) or MTB (mycobacterium tuberculosis) is a widespread, and in numerous cases fatal, communicable disease produced by a .
Origins[ edit ] Scientific work investigating the evolutionary origins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has concluded that the most recent common ancestor of the complex was a human-specific pathogen , which underwent a population bottleneck. Analysis of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units has allowed dating of the bottleneck to approximately 40, years ago, which corresponds to the period subsequent to the expansion of Homo sapiens sapiens out of Africa.
This analysis of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units also dated the Mycobacterium bovis lineage as dispersing approximately 6, years ago, which may be linked to animal domestication and early farming. There have also been a claim of evidence of lesions characteristic of tuberculosis in a , years old Homo erectus fossile, although this finding is controversial. Scientists were able to recreate the genome of the bacteria from remains of 1, year-old skeletons in southern Peru.
In dating the DNA, they found it was less than 6, years old.
Loss of appetite Pain with breathing or coughing pleurisy Tuberculosis also can target almost any part of your body, including your joints, bones, urinary tract, central nervous system, muscles, bone marrow and lymphatic system. When TB occurs outside your lungs, signs and symptoms vary, depending on the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis of the spine may result in back pain, and tuberculosis that affects your kidneys might cause blood in your urine.
Tuberculosis can also spread through your entire body, simultaneously attacking many organ systems.
Someone has said that she died in a tuberculosis sanitarium in Arkansas just outside of Fort Smith. I do not know iif there was one closer than Boonville. Someone said she .
As its name suggests, it likes to infect cows, but as we’re recently all too aware, it’s quite happy in badgers too. There are about species of mycobacteria. They’re rod-like bacilli with a thick, waxy cell wall. From its point of view, it’s very successful. From our point of view, it’s the most important bacterial disease that afflicts us, causing about one-and-a-half million deaths a year.
This is how TB is caught: In your lungs, your own immune cells move in and swallow up the bugs — but this is exactly what they want. Inside the immune cell, the bacilli replicate and pile up. More immune cells pile in. If you’re lucky, the bacilli are held tight in this lump, this tubercle. If you’re unlucky, the bugs get out and the disease spreads — through your lungs and you start coughing up droplets with bacilli in, ready to infect someone else , through your whole body, even getting into your bones.
Not that long ago, TB in humans was thought to have been a fairly recent affliction, dating back to the neolithic and the origins of farming. This oft-repeated idea seemed reasonable — there didn’t seem to be any convincing cases of TB in skeletons dating to earlier periods. But this isn’t the story written in the DNA of the bacilli.
History of tuberculosis
The publisher’s final edited version of this article is available free at Trop Med Int Health See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Objectives To quantify the risk of infection and disease in spouses of tuberculosis patients, and the extent to which intervention could reduce the risk in this highly exposed group. Results Of smear positive patients ascertained prospectively, reported cohabiting spouses, with recruited.
We identified spouses of previously diagnosed smear positive patients. TST prevalence was already high by the time the spouses were approached but further infections were seen to occur. Uptake and adherence to IPT was disappointing, lessening the impact of short duration therapy.
May 14, · Dating someone of tuberclosis?? Page 1 of 1: I met a guy that is almost 40 now and on our second date he mentioned to me he was diagnosed with Tuberclosis at the age 21 and was cured back then and is healthy right now.
A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time. ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: An injury that may include a scrape, a scratch, a scuff, a graze or a cut to the individual’s skin. Abscess A collection of pus around an infection. Absorb, absorption When liquids soak into a tissue they are absorbed.
Some medications are delivered into the body by allowing them to soak into the skin or other body tissues. Abstain To refrain from doing something or to not participate. Abuse The intentional infliction of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation,or punishment aimed at another, with resulting physical harm, pain, or mental anguish. This term is one that is commonly defined very specifically by state laws or regulations. You must be familiar with your state definitions.
Six dead and 17 sick from major drug-resistant tuberculosis outbreak in Minnesota
Scanning electron micrograph of M. In nature, the bacterium can grow only within the cells of a host organism, but M. Since MTB retains certain stains even after being treated with acidic solution, it is classified as an acid-fast bacillus. The latter two species are classified as ” nontuberculous mycobacteria ” NTM.
When I read the first sentence- my girlfriend is suffering from tuberculosis, I felt so jealous on her because when I was having my treatment I always felt depressed and I always craved for someone with whom I can share what I was going through.
A smoking habit can have serious repercussions on your health, your family, and your love life. My mom had a strict never-ever-smoke-near-my-kids policy, so her little brother would slink outside for a half hour or so and come back smelling funny. The American Lung Association, alongside friends and family, can fill that role for smokers.
Just a few decades ago, smoking indoors even on flights! Still, 40 million adults in the U. The American Lung Association has spent decades honing their process and offers many supportive tools to get people to their goals. In eight face-to-face group sessions, smokers find solidarity and learn more about the lasting health complications that come from tobacco usage. In a series of nine lessons, smokers can easily make a plan to quit and track their progress.
Respiratory Experts Available for Free The American Lung Association stays with people every step of the way as they give up their addiction. You can also live chat with a counselor from the website using your email address to connect. Professional counselors at the American Lung Association can be reached by phone, email, or live chat. The call lines are staffed by registered nurses, respiratory therapists, certified tobacco treatment specialists, and other counselors who can provide knowledgeable guidance for smokers and nonsmokers.
These events, held throughout the country, often revolve around exercise or community involvement, so smokers become more engaged and active while walking, cycling, climbing, or volunteering.